ARTICLES AND DISSERTATIONS
WŁADYSŁAW T. MIODUNKA: On the need for describing and shaping language awareness among Polish people
MIROSŁAWA SAGAN-BIELAWA: Polish (not only) for Poles. Students’ opinion on the position of the language in the worldThe article discusses the results of a survey conducted among students of humanities, science and technology studies in Cracow, Gliwice and Wrocław. Young people have been polled in order to find out their opinion on the status of Polish in the world. They were asked various questions: about the position of Polish in the ranking of EU languages, learning Polish as a foreign language, state certificate examinations and issues of language policy in Poland. The survey showed not only the knowledge and opinion of students but also revealed the scope of linguistic consciousness demonstrated in evaluating or undervaluing the potential of their language. The research examined the permanence of stereotypes as well, such as the threat of negative influence of foreign languages or the idea that Polish is a very difficult language.
ADAM PAWŁOWSKI: Inflection of certain company and product names as a subject of language policyThe purpose of this article is to report on and discuss the results of a pilot survey concerning the attitude of language users towards the process of avoiding the use of flexional noun forms in the names of companies, products and brands in advertising and crypto-commercial discourse. The material used in the study derives from a survey conducted among students from various fields of studies. The results obtained show that the level of acceptance of incorrect expressions containing non-inflected nominal forms, frequently and flagrantly misused by the media, is significant. The theoretical methods and concepts of language policy were found to be the most effective tool of analysis for examining this phenomenon.
ARTUR REJTER: Proper names in literature and cultural memoryThe article concerns the relations between proper names in Polish literary texts and cultural memory. This kind of relations could be viewed at the micro- or macroscale, which means that proper names could be considered the signs of a local culture, e.g. Polish or general culture formation like the European one. The cultural memory is understood as a special collection of symbolic forms present in many different dimensions. One should consider literature as one of them. The examples used in the analysis process were excerpted from different literary epochs, aesthetic conventions and artistic trends, for instance Baroque, socialist realism or modern literature. During the research the analysis showed that proper names in literature constitute a cultural memory in their both – conventional and original – types. The analysis confirmed the validity of this kind of research, especially when one observes and interprets proper names in their text, genre and discourse. Furthermore, the paper is a proof of independence of literary onomastics as a human studies discipline.
MAGDALENA GRAF: Ce n’est pas IPA, to Stare ALE jare. Global – ethnic – local in the names of alcoholsThe purpose of the article is to show in the realm of onomastics – using examples of selected names of vodka, wine and beer – the rivalry between globalization tendencies and the wish of the creators of names to reflect some local identity in the proper names (in a broad and narrow sense). The author discusses the names of alcoholic beverages which connote the information about the localness and traditionalism of those products.
JUSTYNA B. WALKOWIAK: Piekielny or Piekielna? Connotation of surnames with an adjective declension and women’s choice of their masculine formIn the article adjectival Polish surnames ending with -y, -i are analysed. Though their ratio in the overall onomasticon is relatively low, they are characteristic as far as their feminine forms are concerned: for most of the time since 1945 women have been able to choose between their masculine or feminine form. An attempt has been made to explore how such choices, accumulated over the years, are reflected in the synchronic data from the beginning of the 21st century. The study focuses on selected surnames identical with adjectives potentially applicable to humans – their looks (e.g. Szczerbaty ‘gap-toothed’, Chudy ‘thin’), character (Odważny ‘brave’, Wesoły ‘merry’) and other features that may be used of humans (Biedny ‘poor’, Ważny ‘important’). It was assumed that negative connotations (connected with surnames such as Ciężki ‘heavy’, Postrzelony ‘nutty’) would increase the likelihood of opting for the masculine form in order to distance oneself from the appellative meaning of the same-sounding adjective. Such a correlation has indeed been found. Besides, the relationship between the evaluation of a surname and its frequency in the onomasticon was investigated. It has been found that the most popular surnames tend to be rated higher, which might be an instance of the mere exposure effect as proposed by Robert Zajonc.
VIOLETTA JAROS: Masking names in Joachim Lelewel’s emigrational letters written to friendsThe topic of this paper are masking names referring to anthroponyms, social ideonyms, and also toponyms excerpted from Joachim Lelewel’s emigrational correspondence. The use of the masking names being analysed is principally motivated by political and social circumstances. Sometimes, the use of certain types of terms (mainly initials and syllabonyms) may be determined by the economy of language. The language material of the concealed propria are proper and common nouns. Name‐making mechanisms include relations between a name and a name, and also a name and a designate. The secret names encountered most frequently are cryptonyms, including acronyms. Among the masked proper nouns, pseudonyms (this function is fulfilled by names, surnames, nicknames, ethnonyms, toponyms and appelatives) are clearly dominant.
PIOTR ZBRÓG: How is the memory about the recessive elements of language stored in the codified normThe article describes the process of retaining the recessive units in the correctness publications which have been the sources of the codified norm for the last hundred years. This includes the following forms: interesa, czochrze, w Prusiech. Such elements marked i.a. as rare, former, out of use or outdated belonged in the given period to the linguistic norm of some speakers of Polish. Therefore linguists made attempts to retain them in the codified norm at least for some time so that they could serve as evidence of their former correctness. They were used with qualifiers which provided information about potential question concerning the topicality of the recessive elements. Such units met different fates. They were no longer provided or perceived as wrong in the succeeding dictionaries that were examined. They often functioned as recessive until contemporaneity or even returned as equal variants. A detailed typology of these relations was discussed in the article.
RENATA KUCHARZYK: Neosemantization of the flagowy adjective in the contemporary Polish languageThe subject of the article is the semantic development of the adjective flagowy. Most Polish language lexicons present only one meaning of the lexeme: ‘the adjectival form of the word flag’. However, it turns out that in the contemporary Polish language the adjective functions in numerous new meanings. Flagowy means, inter alia: ‘the most characteristic of a given period, movement, environment; typical’, ‘having the highest value, the most significant, the best’, ‘frequently occurring; usual, common’. Neosemantization of that lexeme is probably the result of the influence of English, but the local development is also possible.
MIKOŁAJ RYCHŁO: Controversial traces of the change PIE *p > PGmc *f in Polish-English cognates: disputable etymologies and early loanwordsThe present paper is the third in the series devoted to the traces of Grimm’s Law in Polish-English cognates and it concentrates on the change from PIE *p to PGmc *f, but this time the focus is on the controversial cases, which are omitted from Polish etymological dictionaries. Firstly, ten disputable etymologies are presented together with argumentation pertaining to phonological, morphological and semantic developments and leading to new interpretations. The comparisons have been divided into three groups: (1) likely etymologies, which could enter Polish etymological dictionaries, (2) unclear or not fully clear and (3) doubtful/mysterious etymologies, which, despite similarity, present serious formal problems. Secondly, loanwords are divided according to whether they demonstrate effects of Grimm’s Law or not, as cases of Germanic loanwords in Proto-Slavic display the same sound correspondence for different reasons.
The article opens with a review of Polish research devoted to language awareness. Two monographs adopting a historic perspective seem particularly important, one characterising language awareness in the Polish society from the 10th to the 15th century (K. Maćkowiak 2011) and the other in the years 1918–1939 (M. Sagan-Bielawa 2014). The remaining body of reviewed research investigates language awareness among various Polish groups living contemporarily. This part is followed by a discussion of the definitions of language awareness proposed by K. Maćkowiak and M. Sagan-Bielawa, the features of language awareness by P. Scherfer, as well as attitudes towards language by A. Markowski. Despite numerous earlier suggestions of the necessity to conduct research on language awareness among Polish people, no program of such research has to date been proposed. In the present article, W. Miodunka puts forward a seven-point program to guide further research into language awareness among Polish people, including those who live abroad. The article concludes with reflections on how to shape language awareness in the future. Here, the author takes into account research demonstrating that about 70% of Polish emigrants in Europe do not transmit Polish to their children, deeming it unnecessary. Those parents should be educated on the benefits resulting from bilingualism and on the many advantages offered to multilinguals in Europe.
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