ARTICLES AND DISSERTATIONS
WALERY PISAREK: Language of the media or language in the media?According to the Encyclopedia of general linguistics, language is “a system of signs […] used to communicate within the community”. The phrase media of communication (colloquially as mass media) is the collective term for newspapers, periodicals, radio, television and the Internet. For the communication researcher, media are measures of articulation of information, its recording, processing, multiplication and transmission, as well as organization of its diffusion. Language in the media is a form of linguistic messages, shaped, maintained and processed with a view to its reproduction and transmission over the usually institutional channels. So understood language in the media has no specific features that distinguish it from other varieties of language, but various media affect the messages transmitted by linguistic forms. Therefore, it is more appropriately to speak about the language in the media rather than about the language of the media, the more so that language of the media consists of natural language apart from other codes (e.g. film language). Moreover, the language of some media dispenses completely without natural (ethnic) language (e.g. road signs).
BOGUSŁAW SKOWRONEK: From the perspective of the viewer. On the new field of study of language in mediaThe article presents an idea of creating a new field of analysis of the Polish language used in the media. What has been emphasised so far is the perspective of the sender and specific media transmissions. The point of the discussion is to broaden the scope of analysis to include appropriately oriented studies of linguisitc behaviour of the viewers and/or specific target groups. Apart from a general description of contemporary models of usage of media messages and the discussion of factors organising the establishment of appropriate discourse communities, the article comprises specific ideas of using certain linguistic paradigms in planned activities.
JOLANTA MAĆKIEWICZ: How it is possible to analyze multimodal messagesThe article deals with the problem of multimodality. First, the question of terminology is addressed (Polish equivalents of English terms: multimodality, mode, and their scope). Then, methodological problems are enumerated. The last part is devoted to the rules of analyzing multimodal press messages.
RYSZARD TOKARSKI: From the linguistic picture of the world to the pictures of the world in languageThe essay shows the evolution of the theory of the linguistic picture of the world from the nationally determined static image to the multiplicity of pictures in contemporary Polish. This internal diversity of conceptual systems suggested by language depends on sociological, stylistic and world-view determinants, but first of all on the types of rationality (popular – scientific – creative) that a language user can refer to. The study postulates the inseparability of different forms of thinking about man and the external world. A special role is played here by the textual pictures of the world that either illustrate conventional categorizations and valuations or are their creative development or transformation.
DANUTA KĘPA-FIGURA: Success in media communication and genre determinants in language cooperationThis article discusses the notion of communication success as dependent on the performative force and the intention of a given message, imposed on this message by the text-type (genre) categorization. Subject to analysis are media communications, represented by the categories of news and columns. To assess the effectiveness of the communication process actuated by the media, Grice’s cooperative principle is employed.
BOŻENA ŻMIGRODZKA: New uses of the first and second person singular past tense verb forms in the neuter gender in contemporary textsThe article describes very rare neuter gender verb forms in the first and second person singular past tense (like byłom, byłoś), the use of which was traditionally constrained to anthropomorphism of objects, whose names were in the neuter grammatical gender. In the contemporary literary texts and internet utterances these forms surface as ways of addressing people – the sender and the recipient in the act of communication. New functions are connected to expressing untypicality, non-normativeness, difficulty of categorizing said people – on the basis of their gender, but also community, ideology and personal affiliations. They can also signal states of temporary confusion. They are used to refer to an unborn child before its sex can be identified or suggest “childlikeness” of an adult person. Forms discussed in the article can also serve as an element introducing multidimensional narration. In literature, they refer to postgender and genderless persons, as well as virtual characters.
AGNIESZKA STARZYKIEWICZ: Definitions of nicknames of Polish celebritiesThe aim of this article is to point out the characteristic traits connected with definitions of nicknames of Polish celebrities by conducting a structural and semantic analysis of these names. The term celebrity defines people who often appear in the mass media and arouse interest. The collected nicknames and appellative terms have identifying and expressive purposes. The analysis conducted proved that the majority of the naming formation comes from common names, and during the process of their creation we can observe freedom and free choice of the linguistic means used.
KATARZYNA HOŁOJDA-MIKULSKA: Discussions about feminativum in “The Polish Language” in the years 1945–1989The paper presents the results of the analysis of the discussions about feminativum, ongoing in the years 1945–1989 in the journal “The Polish Language”. The study was conducted using content analysis. The research material was 13 scientific papers. Based on the content analysis it was possible to extract the most important topics of the debate. In the years 1945–1989, the emphasis was primarily put on the forms of academic titles of women and female surnames informing about the marital status. In both cases, problems connected with flexion were more important than the mechanisms of word formation.
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